If your system is affected, our proof-of-concept exploit can read the memory content of your computer. This may include passwords and sensitive data stored on the system.
We don't know.
There are patches against Meltdown for Linux (
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Desktop, Laptop, and Cloud computers may be affected by Meltdown. More technically, every Intel processor which implements out-of-order execution is potentially affected, which is effectively every processor since 1995 (except Intel Itanium and Intel Atom before 2013). We successfully tested Meltdown on Intel processor generations released as early as 2011. Currently, we have only verified Meltdown on Intel processors. At the moment, it is unclear whether AMD processors are also affected by Meltdown. According to ARM , some of their processors are also affected.
Almost every system is affected by Spectre: Desktops, Laptops, Cloud Servers, as well as Smartphones. More specifically, all modern processors capable of keeping many instructions in flight are potentially vulnerable. In particular, we have verified Spectre on Intel, AMD, and ARM processors.
Cloud providers which use Intel CPUs and Xen PV as virtualization without having patches applied. Furthermore, cloud providers without real hardware virtualization, relying on containers that share one kernel, such as Docker, LXC, or OpenVZ are affected.
Meltdown breaks the mechanism that keeps applications from accessing arbitrary system memory. Consequently, applications can access system memory. Spectre tricks other applications into accessing arbitrary locations in their memory. Both attacks use side channels to obtain the information from the accessed memory location. For a more technical discussion we refer to the papers (
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The vulnerability basically melts security boundaries which are normally enforced by the hardware.
The name is based on the root cause, speculative execution. As it is not easy to fix, it will haunt us for quite some time.
Yes, there is an academic paper and a blog post about Meltdown, and an academic paper about Spectre. Furthermore, there is a Google Project Zero blog entry about both attacks.
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Web developers have a habit of taking HTTP for granted because it just works. HTTP works so well that people all over the world exercise the protocol
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. However, in this post I want to focus on a less-noted topic: the need to respect idempotency when using HTTP.
Idempotent is a big word with a simple meaning, so don't feel intimidated. Idempotency refers to the ability to operate on a resource with the same command any number of times and maintain the same state. That is to say the resource stays unchanged after each subsequent operation. For example, SQL update statements are idempotent. If we find a user named 'Patrick' and set his employer to '8th Light' the end result will be that 'Patrick' is employed by '8th Light' even if the update is run more than once.
How does it help to maintain idempotence with HTTP? One clear win is that clients of a server can retry the same request any number of times. Suppose a client connects to a server, sends a request, and then a timeout occurs. Instead of attempting to figure out what the world looks like according to the server, the client can just send the same request again without fear. This is further amplified if we want to make multiple requests to multiple services. If one part of the process fails, we can resend each request without having to perform any logic to target the failure across all of the involved systems. Being mindful of idempotence can also save you in situations where you should not create or further mutate a resource, such as charging credit cards.
The HTTP verbs GET, HEAD, DELETE, PUT are always idempotent if their use correctly conforms to the HTTP specification . POST is the verb for non-idempotent requests and is often understood to be for create requests. PUT is usually refered to as the update verb, but this understanding might be a bit naive.
Sometimes it can be difficult to differentiate between a PUT and a POST. For instance, what if we implement a counter? Imagine a system (circa 1995) where everytime a user interacts with the counter it increases by one. In this example, we can GET the count of the counter at anytime. Should we use PUT when we want to increment the counter? It might be intuitive to say yes because we are updating the counter resource. I might have baited you a bit with the word update, because the answer is no. Why is it no? Updating the counter is not idempotent and therefore falls out of specification for PUT. So how do we justify POST which is typically associated with creation ? Well, we could say that we are creating counter entries, and our get is simply a summation of counter entries. Of course this is only the perception from the outside world, the server can implement this any way it chooses.
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